The way to your own planned stable
Domestic and farm animals have been bred and kept by humans for centuries. Housing in a stable is necessary for many animal species. Depending on the species, purpose and wishes of the animal owner, stalls can be designed very differently. Many pet owners therefore want to design and build their own barn. In principle, this is quite possible, but some regulations and guidelines must be observed.
A modern stable today has to meet various requirements and comply with legal requirements. The following guide gives an overview of house types, requirements and the planning process.
Barn types: The right barn for my animals
At the beginning of the planning process there is the question of what type of barn should be built. Of course, the decisive factor here is which animal species should be housed there. Depending on the species, different needs and characteristics have to be considered. The legal requirements for housing the various animal species must also be observed. The following stable construction methods are usually used:
Always ensure that there is good lighting in poultry houses. It must be at least 20 lux. At least three percent of the stable area must be window areas to ensure daylight. Many poultry houses are also equipped with special lamps that emit a blue-green light that is calming for the animals. Fights and cannibalism between the animals should be reduced and avoided as far as possible.
Unpaved floors with a 30 to 40 centimeter high layer of straw or shavings are characteristic of poultry housing.
Furthermore, in poultry keeping, a distinction must be made between fattening animals (e.g. turkeys, geese, ducks or chickens) and laying hens.
Broiler houses can be free houses with cross ventilation or closed houses with forced ventilation.
In order to reduce and improve the mass rearing of laying hens, additional regulations apply here. There must be 1,100 cm² available per hen in the barn. If cages are used, they must have an area of at least 2 x 1.5 meters and a height of at least 2 meters. There must also be nests, perches and litter for the hens.
The horse stables are among the oldest types of stables. Accordingly, there are many different variants here. Most common today, however, are box stalls with a stable lane running through the middle and horse stalls on both sides. The horses stand in sufficiently large individual boxes with usually solid floors.
There are comparatively few legal regulations to be observed for horse stalls. However, tethered keeping in a tethered stall, for example, is generally prohibited.
If you are planning a horse stable, you can choose either a cold or a warm stable when it comes to heating and ventilation. In the case of the warm stable, there is forced ventilation. However, the cold stall is more popular and healthier. It will be built with sufficient open spaces and across the main wind direction for cross ventilation.
In principle, many different variants are also possible here. As in the horse stable, cold or warm stables with usually solid floors are possible. Here, however, the trend is more towards warm stables.
Furthermore, a distinction is made between cattle stalls with individual or group housing. The cows are kept tied up in individual stalls on a short, medium or long stall. In modern cattle husbandry, however, group husbandry is considered to be a more beneficial option in terms of health and economy. The animals can move around freely in so-called loose pens.
Free pens can also be differentiated into deep free stalls and loose stalls. The deep-free stall requires a little more space, because the lying and walking areas for the animals are not separated here. The loose stall, on the other hand, has separate berths for each animal.
Pig stalls are basically forced-ventilated warm stalls.
The pigs are fattened in groups, so the stalls are divided into different compartments. Each group of pigs is housed in a separate area.
Special forms of pigsty are breeding stalls or waiting stalls for piglet rearing. Crate stands for the temporary keeping of a sow, but also group housing, are possible here. The farrowing house is used for childbirth and is usually equipped with red light lamps for additional warmth.
In the pigsty, too, paved floors are normally used. Slatted floors that allow pigs’ faeces and urine to pass through are common in large animal populations. Thatched floors are also possible and are much more species-appropriate.
How do I go about planning the barn?
If it is clear which type of stall should be, planning can be based on this in four steps:
1. Create the floor plan
The creation of a floor plan forms the basis for further planning. It can be made by hand or created on the computer with suitable CAD software. In particular, a program that is especially suitable for barn planning can be a good choice here.
In the floor plan, the basic requirements for the stable with regard to size, shape and properties, as explained above, must be considered.
2. Determine a suitable location n
There must be a building plot in a suitable environment for the stable. The requirements for this can vary depending on the type and purpose of the planned barn. The surroundings of a horse stable should, for example, offer sufficient space to move the horses or ride them out, while in the case of a pigsty, the annoyance of residents due to the smell may have to be considered. Financial and personal aspects can also play a role here.
3. Budget and financial calculation
A fixed location and floor plan allow an initial cost calculation. For this purpose, existing financial resources should be set as a budget. If the calculation exceeds the budget, savings must be planned. Changes to the planned construction or a cheaper construction site would be conceivable.
4. Submit the building application
Before the start of construction, a building application must be submitted and approved by the authorities. The easiest way to apply is to ask the architect or the construction company carrying out the work as soon as they are familiar with the plans. As soon as a building permit is available, the planned construction can be carried out.